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Taking the CNC Plunge

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TomS

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I'm at the point where I need to fire up the computer so I can configure and test the electronics. Before I do that I'd like some feedback on my wiring and initial configurations. Don't want any smoke to get out!

Some notes first. I left in place the VFD wiring for my On/Off switch, Fwd/Rev switch, and potentiometer. For those VFD terminals shared between manual control and Mach3 control I spliced the wires together. I'm still reading through the PMDX and ESS manuals and searching the net. Still have some configuration to do such as spindle pin assignment, ESS configuration, and more.

Here are my wiring and initial settings:

Drivers to PMDX-126 (J1, J2 and J3)
Step signal to Pin 8, 6 and 4 on J1, J2 and J3
Dir signal to Pin 9, 7 and 5 on J1, J2 and J3
Enable signal not connected

115VAC to PMDX-126 (switch set to "115")

Probe wire to J12 Pin 15 (ground is through spindle)
Limit switches to J12 Pin 11 (wired in series)
Limit switch ground to adjacent GND terminal
E-stop wire to J13 "E-stop" Pin
E-stop ground to adjacent GND terminal

JP1 set to Pin 1
JP2 set to Pin 14
JP3 set to OFF
JP4 no jumper provided
JP5 set to OFF
JP6 set to NORMAL

PMDX-126 SW1
Config 1 - Open (Off)
Config 2 - Closed (On)
Config 3 - Closed
Config 4 - Closed
Config 5 - Closed
Config 6 - Closed
Config 7 - Open
Config 8 - Open

PMDX-107 to VFD (Hitachi WJ200)
SW1 - all off

Rev/Dir to VFD terminal 2 (logic input)
Fwd/Run to VFD terminal 1 (logic input)
Com to VFD terminal P24 (+24V for logic inputs)
Aref to VFD terminal H (+10V analog reference)
Aout to VFD terminal O (analog voltage input)
Agnd to VFD terminal L (GRND for logic inputs)

Mach3 Spindle Setup
Disable Relay Control - Checked
Use Spindle Motor Output - Checked
PWM Control - Checked (I'm thinking this should be Step/Dir Motor based on my PMDX-107 wiring)
PWM Base Frequency - 25
Minimum PWM - 5%

Spindle Motor Tuning
Steps per - 1000
Velocity - 60
Acceleration - 5000

Pulley Selection
Pulley 1, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 8625, Ratio = 2.5
Pulley 2, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 1380, Ratio = .4

Thanks,


Tom S.
 

jbolt

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Step/Dir setting per your settings in Mach3

I don't use a probe so N/A

My limits are wired in parallel so N/A

E-stop "OK"

Power in is correct if using household current.

JP1 set to Pin 1
JP2 set to Pin 14
JP3 set to OFF
JP4 set to OFF
JP5 set to OFF
JP6 set to NORMAL

PMDX-126 SW1
Config 1 - Open (Off)
Config 2 - Closed (On)
Config 3 - Closed
Config 4 - Closed
Config 5 - Closed
Config 6 - Closed
Config 7 - Closed (position does not matter if JP1 set to pin 1)
Config 8 - Closed position (does not matter if JP2 set to pin 14)


******************
My VFD is different so N/A but below is my setup for a Haunyang VFD for comparison

PMDX-107 ---> VFD
Pin 6 - Rev/Dir ----> REV (reverse run)
Pin 5 - Fwd/Run ----> FOR (forward run)
Pin 4 - COM (common terminal for relays, pins 5 & 6) ----> DCM (common terminal of digital and control signals)
Pin 3 - Aref (not used)
Pin 2 - Aout (spindle speed analog control voltage) ----> VI (analog voltage frequency reference input)
Pin 1 - Agnd (VSD ground reference) ----> ACM (common terminal of analog and control signals)

PMDX Config settings (dip switches)
Config 1 = Off (Normal Mode)
Config 2 = Off (Normal Mode)
Config 3 = Off (relays operate as for and reverse control signals)
Config 4 = Off (charge pump signal required)
Slow = On (fast PWM filter response) (Off setting caused some issues with my cheap Chinese VFD)
5v/10v = Off (10v reference)

********************

Mach3 Spindle Setup
Disable Relay Control - Checked
Use Spindle Motor Output - Checked
PWM Control - Checked
PWM Base Frequency - 25
Minimum PWM - 5%

*Under "General" I set the spin up delay to 1 second longer than the spin up parameter in the VFD to make sure the spindle was up to speed before cutting.

Spindle Motor Tuning
Steps per - 1000
Velocity - 60
Acceleration - 5000

********************
**Pulley Selection
Pulley 1, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 8625, Ratio = 2.5
Pulley 2, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 1380, Ratio = .4

**(I never figured out how to switch between pulleys in the software so I have pulley 1 as my high speed pulley. When I use the low range I have a tool library setup in HSMworks just for low speed tools and the speed is set to compensate for the speed reduction. If you figure that out please post how it is done)

I can email you screen shots of my ESS setting if you want to see them.
 

TomS

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Step/Dir setting per your settings in Mach3

I don't use a probe so N/A

My limits are wired in parallel so N/A

E-stop "OK"

Power in is correct if using household current.

JP1 set to Pin 1
JP2 set to Pin 14
JP3 set to OFF
JP4 set to OFF
JP5 set to OFF
JP6 set to NORMAL

PMDX-126 SW1
Config 1 - Open (Off)
Config 2 - Closed (On)
Config 3 - Closed
Config 4 - Closed
Config 5 - Closed
Config 6 - Closed
Config 7 - Closed (position does not matter if JP1 set to pin 1)
Config 8 - Closed position (does not matter if JP2 set to pin 14)


******************
My VFD is different so N/A but below is my setup for a Haunyang VFD for comparison

PMDX-107 ---> VFD
Pin 6 - Rev/Dir ----> REV (reverse run)
Pin 5 - Fwd/Run ----> FOR (forward run)
Pin 4 - COM (common terminal for relays, pins 5 & 6) ----> DCM (common terminal of digital and control signals)
Pin 3 - Aref (not used)
Pin 2 - Aout (spindle speed analog control voltage) ----> VI (analog voltage frequency reference input)
Pin 1 - Agnd (VSD ground reference) ----> ACM (common terminal of analog and control signals)

PMDX Config settings (dip switches)
Config 1 = Off (Normal Mode)
Config 2 = Off (Normal Mode)
Config 3 = Off (relays operate as for and reverse control signals)
Config 4 = Off (charge pump signal required)
Slow = On (fast PWM filter response) (Off setting caused some issues with my cheap Chinese VFD)
5v/10v = Off (10v reference)

********************

Mach3 Spindle Setup
Disable Relay Control - Checked
Use Spindle Motor Output - Checked
PWM Control - Checked
PWM Base Frequency - 25
Minimum PWM - 5%

*Under "General" I set the spin up delay to 1 second longer than the spin up parameter in the VFD to make sure the spindle was up to speed before cutting.

Spindle Motor Tuning
Steps per - 1000
Velocity - 60
Acceleration - 5000

********************
**Pulley Selection
Pulley 1, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 8625, Ratio = 2.5
Pulley 2, Min Speed = 0, Max Speed = 1380, Ratio = .4

**(I never figured out how to switch between pulleys in the software so I have pulley 1 as my high speed pulley. When I use the low range I have a tool library setup in HSMworks just for low speed tools and the speed is set to compensate for the speed reduction. If you figure that out please post how it is done)

I can email you screen shots of my ESS setting if you want to see them.
Thanks for taking a look and commenting. Always good to have another set of eyes checking to make sure I didn't do something foolish. I finished up configuring Mach3 today. Just have to make a couple of changes you recommended and other than a couple of dip switch changes looks like I'm ready to power it up.

I would have thought I could find more info on wiring the spindle control board to my VFD. All I could find is one example of a Hitachi VFD and the PMDX-107 spindle control board. So that's what I used along with the PMDX manual.

Yes, please send me screen shots of your ESS configuration. No hurry though. Leaving for Oregon tomorrow to get away from the 110 degree heat. I'll get back to it in a couple of weeks.

Tom S.
 

TomS

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For those interested here are a few pictures of my BoB, ESS and spindle control board installation.

A piece of 3/16" aluminum plate cut to fit into the 12" x 12" enclosure. 1" tall stand-offs for mounting the BoB.
20170612_163435_resized_2.jpg

115vac in at the top and control wiring (ethernet cable, motor driver and limit switch wires) in at bottom. Five 9/16" stand-offs for mounting the 3/16" plate.
20170612_163337_resized_3.jpg

The new electronics mounted and ready for installation.
20170612_163533_resized_2.jpg

The plate mounted in the enclosure and components wired.
20170617_144354_resized_1.jpg
 

TomS

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Finished up installation and configuration of the BoB and ESS and have them working in normal mode. I can jog the motors, the e-stop works, limit switches do what they are supposed to do, and the probe functions. But when I configure the Dip switch for normal mode with charge pump (as suggested in PMDX Bulletin AN002) the motors no longer move and the remote e-stop doesn't work. I've enabled the charge pump function in Mach3 and specified Port 1 and Pin 17. Spent most of yesterday reading and trying to track down a solution. No luck!

My second issue is I can't get the PMDX-107 board to communicate with my VFD (Hitachi WJ200-015SF). I followed the AN002 instructions but still no communication. Tried it with charge pump and without. I'm definitely missing something in the 107 or VFD configuration.

PLC is jumpered to L on upper row "Source Logic".

Motor thermal switch to Terminal 5 (Logic Input) and Terminal L (Grnd for logic inputs) on VFD

107 to VFD Connections:

Rev/Dir to Terminal 2 on VFD (Logic Input)
Fwd/Run to Terminal 1 on VFD (Logic Input)
COM to Terminal P24 on VFD (+24V for logic inputs)
Aref to Terminal H on VFD (+10V analog reference and probably not needed)
Aout to Terminal O on VFD (analog voltage input)
Agnd to Terminal L on lower row on VFD (GRND for logic inputs)

Not sure what I'm doing wrong. Any help is appreciated. If more information is needed please ask.

Tom S.
 

TomS

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Finished up installation and configuration of the BoB and ESS and have them working in normal mode. I can jog the motors, the e-stop works, limit switches do what they are supposed to do, and the probe functions. But when I configure the Dip switch for normal mode with charge pump (as suggested in PMDX Bulletin AN002) the motors no longer move and the remote e-stop doesn't work. I've enabled the charge pump function in Mach3 and specified Port 1 and Pin 17. Spent most of yesterday reading and trying to track down a solution. No luck!

My second issue is I can't get the PMDX-107 board to communicate with my VFD (Hitachi WJ200-015SF). I followed the AN002 instructions but still no communication. Tried it with charge pump and without. I'm definitely missing something in the 107 or VFD configuration.

PLC is jumpered to L on upper row "Source Logic".

Motor thermal switch to Terminal 5 (Logic Input) and Terminal L (Grnd for logic inputs) on VFD

107 to VFD Connections:

Rev/Dir to Terminal 2 on VFD (Logic Input)
Fwd/Run to Terminal 1 on VFD (Logic Input)
COM to Terminal P24 on VFD (+24V for logic inputs)
Aref to Terminal H on VFD (+10V analog reference and probably not needed so I removed it)
Aout to Terminal O on VFD (analog voltage input)
Agnd to Terminal L on lower row on VFD (GRND for logic inputs)

Not sure what I'm doing wrong. Any help is appreciated. If more information is needed please ask.

Tom S.
Attached is the programming info Mark (MKSJ) sent me when I first setup my vfd. Worked perfect right out of the box. Keep in mind these settings are for controlling speed with an external pot.

I played with some of the parameters again this morning and had zero luck getting the spindle to rotate. The PMDX-126 pin 14 LED pulsed when I entered an "S" command so there is some communication between the BoB and 107 spindle board.

I'm stumped.

Tom S.
 

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jbolt

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Attached is the programming info Mark (MKSJ) sent me when I first setup my vfd. Worked perfect right out of the box. Keep in mind these settings are for controlling speed with an external pot.

I played with some of the parameters again this morning and had zero luck getting the spindle to rotate. The PMDX-126 pin 14 LED pulsed when I entered an "S" command so there is some communication between the BoB and 107 spindle board.

I'm stumped.

Tom S.
Hey Tom,

Your connections to the VFD look okay. What are the A001, A002, C001 and C002 setting in the VFD programming?

I would also double check the physical wire connections with a MM to verify the wires are good.
 

TomS

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Hey Tom,

Your connections to the VFD look okay. What are the A001, A002, C001 and C002 setting in the VFD programming?

I would also double check the physical wire connections with a MM to verify the wires are good.
A001 is "Function F001 Setting". For reference the F001 setting is 0 Hz.

A002 is "Control Terminal"

C001 is "STA:Start Motor"

C002 is "STP:Stop Motor"

Thanks
 

jbolt

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I'm not sure Marks setting for C001, C002 & C003 apply to the PMDX-107

Try these settings:

A001 - 01 Control Terminal
C001 to 00:FW
C002 to 01:REV

I believe Aref is only used with a POT.
 

TomS

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I'm not sure Marks setting for C001, C002 & C003 apply to the PMDX-107

Try these settings:

A001 - 01 Control Terminal
C001 to 00:FW
C002 to 01:REV

I believe Aref is only used with a POT.
I'll try your suggestions in the morning. I think you are right about Aref being used only for a pot.

Thanks
 

TomS

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I'm not sure Marks setting for C001, C002 & C003 apply to the PMDX-107

Try these settings:

A001 - 01 Control Terminal
C001 to 00:FW
C002 to 01:REV

I believe Aref is only used with a POT.
Works perfect! The spindle responds to M3, M4 and S commands. I knew it had to be something in the 107 or VFD configuration but with so many VFD parameters it was a bit confusing as to which one's did what, at least to me.

Ran the calibration routine and set max RPM with no problems. Had to readjust deceleration values because it was taking about a minute to coast down from top speed. All is good now.

Thanks again for your help.

FWIW - posted on the PMDX forum same time I posted here. Still no response from them. Another reason, and there are many, why I like this forum.

Tom S.
 

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Today was a good day. Spent some time cleaning up wiring and motor tuning. I'm ready to make parts!

I really like the way the PMDX-126 runs the motors. They seem to be operating smoother and the X and Y backlash I was chasing a few months ago is much less. Not sure why the backlash is better but it was about .007" and measuring it today it's about .0015". Maybe it's the way the board processes pulses. Homing is much improved as well. My old BoB would reverse the drive as soon as it hit the home switch. With this BoB it hits the switch, pauses for a moment, then reverses. Much more sophisticated.

Tom S.
 

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I ran my first job with the new electronics a couple of days ago. The job ran OK but the finish sucks. See the picture below and focus on the slot chamfer. The same roughness is also present on the slot sidewall. Digging deeper I ran some tests today to see if I could isolate the source.

I have adequate spindle bearing preload because I get about 15 to 20 deg F metal temperature rise in the areas around the bearings after running at 8600 rpm for thirty minutes. I ran a couple of more detailed tests at different preloads before reaching this conclusion. I've also read that some people have experienced poor surface finish when converting to AC bearings b ut haven't been able to find out if going back to tapered rollers solved the problem.

My tool changer draw bar has about 6" of stick out above the spindle. Thinking the drawbar may be whipping at high rpm I removed my tool changer and tried a R8 collett and standard draw bar. I took a cut on a test piece of aluminum at 8600 rpm using a 3/8" 4 flute carbide end mill and there was no difference in surface finish. Slowed the speed down to 4000 rpm, still no difference. Then down again to 2200 rpm and no difference. Also played with feed rates but still no change in surface finish.

Next I removed the belt and ran the motor. It was smooth and quiet through it's rpm range.

The other two sources, that I can think of, are the spindle pulley bearings and the spindle drive sleeve to spindle spline interface. Spinning the spindle pulley by hand the bearings seem smooth. Moving on to the drive sleeve/spindle spline interface there is some clearance that is evident when running. There is a noticeable rattle that becomes more pronounced as speed goes up. If I could eliminate the sleeve and install the pulley directly on the spindle I would. Problem is I need about 1/2" of spindle quill travel for my tool changer to work.

I'm looking into some sort of sleeve, possibly Delrin, that has an interference fit between the spindle splines and the drive sleeve. Not sure this will take care of the rattle though.

I'm looking forward to feedback from the forum on correcting the surface finish issue.

TIA

Tom S.

Picture of my surface finish. Notice the roughness of the slot chamfer.
20170717_084653_resized (1).jpg
 

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Coolant?? Yes? No?
My first thought is not to go chasing your tail, but need more information. What are you using to evacuate the chips and are you using any sort of coolant?
My chamfers looked similar if I dont use any sort of coolant. Just a couple shots of wd40 worked wonders.
 
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TomS

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Coolant?? Yes? No?
My first thought is not to go chasing your tail, but need more information. What are you using to evacuate the chips and are you using any sort of coolant?
My chamfers looked similar if I dont use any sort of coolant. Just a couple shots of wd40 worked wonders.
I'm using Rustlick 5050 and flooding the cutting area with two nozzles. Don't know the exact pressure but it's somewhere around 50 psi. Chips aren't a problem.

Here's a picture of the parts. You can't see the surface roughness but the periphery and slot side walls are as rough as the chamfer. Not what I consider acceptable.

Tom S.

20170714_151813_resized.jpg
 

TomS

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Have you checked the run out with a test indicator?
Good point! Not since I changed out the bearings. Before the bearing changeout runout was nearly zero, maybe .0001". I heading out of town this morning and can't get to it until tomorrow evening.

Tom S.
 

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One other thing I can think of. What alloy are you cutting on? I ran into some that was annealed (I think anyway) and it was gummy and didn't finish well at all.
 

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A couple of thoughts;

Do you lock the quill when running?

On the spline, mine rattled a lot when I first did the CNC conversion. I solved that by pumping the space between the splines full of high pressure grease.
 

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One other thing I can think of. What alloy are you cutting on? I ran into some that was annealed (I think anyway) and it was gummy and didn't finish well at all.
6061-T6. BTW - was able to get in the shop this morning before I hit the road. Spindle taper runout was no more than .0002". I still need to take more readings with the spindle at operating temp.

Tom S.
 

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A couple of thoughts;

Do you lock the quill when running?

On the spline, mine rattled a lot when I first did the CNC conversion. I solved that by pumping the space between the splines full of high pressure grease.
Yes, spindle is locked. I tried wheel bearing grease but that didn't help much. I'll see if I can find something that is a thicker consistency and give it another try.

I'm also going to check my gib adjustment. You never know.

Tom S.
 

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I used an amsoil product meant for heavy equipment chasis.

Sent from my SM-G955U using Tapatalk
 

TomS

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I created a test piece in Fusion and set up the CAM. The test piece is a 1/2" x 3" x 3" piece of aluminum with a 1.250" hole in the middle. I set the tolerance to .0004", checked smoothing and set the smoothing tolerance to .0004". Using a 3/8" 4 flute carbide end mill I pocketed the 1-1/4" hole at 4000 rpm and 10 IPM. Surface finish is still terrible.

Checked the spindle taper runout after running the spindle for 10 minutes. Still at no more than .0002".

I've got more reading to do on smoothing and Mach3. Evidently there are a few settings that can be turned on or off.

Tom S.
 

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Try kicking the ipm to 25, at 10 ipm your not even taking a thou per tooth off....... I would be curious to see your g code to get a better idea what your doing. aonemarine at aol dot com.
 

TomS

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Try kicking the ipm to 25, at 10 ipm your not even taking a thou per tooth off....... I would be curious to see your g code to get a better idea what your doing. aonemarine at aol dot com.
I started at 60 IPM, then 30, then 10. Not a significant change in surface finish with the three feed rates.

Here's the gcode file.

Edit: Been doing some reading on arc fitting. Haven't read enough yet but I'm thinking it's the same as smoothing.
 

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